How Financial Institutions Make Money #2

September 20, 2013

I can’t believe it has been almost four years since my first “how financial institutions make money” post. Crazy how fast things go by so quickly. This initial post continues to be one of my most active even today and the primary path that people come to this post is through Google. It’s interesting that so many people are simply Googling (love that this is now a verb) the question: How do financial institutions make money? Honestly, I believe many people are pretty fed up with how things have been going financially and yet the Big Three (IRS, Wall Street, Banks) keep making money hand-over-fist.

For the most part, people are finally seeking to educate themselves first before just following another opinion. Opinions drive me crazy. I’m mean, I certainly like mine but who cares other than me, right? Mint Chocolate Chip is the BEST ice cream flavor of all time. No Kelly, says you, “_____ is the best ice cream flavor!” Who’s right? Who cares? Seriously, no matter what you say I still love Mint Chocolate Chip.

When it comes to the title of this blog “How financial institutions make money” there are no opinions. There’s only truth and the truth could care less about opinions. All of us must understand that there are four rules which are deeply cherished by the IRS, Wall Street and Banks. These rules allow all three to work together.  They allow all three to ensure that they’re winning. They allow all three to redirect the risk of success entirely upon you. I thought we’d review these four rules today. You’ll find that they are extremely simple but they have huge implications. It’s interesting to me that even the Bible talks of a cord of three strands being unbreakable…these three (IRS, Wall Street and Banks – from now on referred to as “IWB”) are most certainly intertwined together and are so hard, if not impossible, to break.

Rule #1: They want and need your money

Now, before you pass this one off as too simple to carry any weight then please take a moment to think about the importance of this one (it’s #1 for a reason).  This one does not require much explanation. All three, IWB, want our money and need our money in order to both operate and turn a profit.

Rule #2: They want and need your money on an ongoing basis

What would happen to Walmart, Coca Cola, Pepsi, McDonalds, Budweiser or any other company in the country if beginning today every customer only bought their product(s) one more time? That’s it. Just one more purchase. They would obviously have a HUGE day if every customer placed their order today but come tomorrow the alarms would be blaring. Nobody shows up again and these businesses are out of business very quickly. Think of all of the employees that would be unemployed or all the buildings that would be vacant or all the farmers who would have no one to sell their produce to…the results would be devastating and felt by all.

Is this example any different for the IWB? No. They must have your money and they must have it on an ongoing basis. If they don’t succeed at this very simple truth then they fail as well. Now, we could dig in real deep to show how, unlike the above mentioned companies, it is virtually impossible for them to fail. They can’t. They won’t. If they actually do fail then along comes Joe Taxpayer to bail them out so that they don’t fail. No matter what happens, they get our money on an ongoing basis.

So how do they accomplish Rule #2? They create financial products that we buy and that we “need”. Banks offer checking and savings accounts, CDs, money markets, loans, credit cards, etc. Wall Street offers financial investment accounts that we contribute to and hopefully grow and the IRS controls the tax implications and the rules behind all of it.

Rule #3: They want and need to hang on to your money for as long as they can

Does the bank like it when you withdraw your money? Of course they don’t. Keep in mind; their liabilities are their greatest assets.  Your money on deposit with them is a liability to the bank – they owe you that money at a promised interest rate; however, they’re turning that money over and lending it to others at a higher rate. We must understand that there is a difference between liabilities and debt. Debt is no good and we must get rid of it but liabilities when managed properly can create a bunch of wealth for us just as they do for the banks.  What happens if everyone goes to the bank the same day to withdraw their funds? It’s called a “run on the bank” and the bank would have to shut their doors or be faced with bankruptcy. They are never in a position to get everyone their deposits back on any given day because they don’t have it. They need our money, they need it on an ongoing basis and they need to hold on to it as long as possible.

The government is the worse with Rule #3. Why do they have so many rules when it comes to you using (whether you simply need it or just want it) your funds in your qualified plan accounts (IRAs, Roths, 401ks, etc.)?  First, let’s make sure we get something very clear here – any funds in your government, qualified plans are not your funds. The government owns and controls that entire transaction. If it is truly your money then why are there so many rules around accessing the funds? Why do you have to wait until you’re 59 ½ to touch it without penalty? What if you choose to retire at age 50? If these accounts are truly in your best interest then why is there any penalty at all? Why are you required to take money out if you hit 70 ½ (Required Minimum Distribution)? What if it doesn’t fit your plan or it’s not in your best interest to access those funds at that point? The number of rules and regulations on these accounts are insane.  You have NO control over them ultimately. Plus, the government can change the rules at any point to serve their financial needs. So, the IRS loves Rule #3. The banks love it as well. Wall Street makes a killing off of it too because they get to manage the money within these products. Think about it: you’re 35 years old with an IRA and you can’t touch it without penalty for 24 more years! Wall Street has a client for a LONG time!

They want to hang on to your money as long as they can and the rules and the product design allow them to do so.

Rule #4: They want and need to give your money back to you as slowly as possible

This one is similar to Rule #3 but it has a slight twist. They want to hold on to our money for as long as possible therefore they create rules to give it back to us as slowly as possible. If this isn’t the case then please explain the 10% tax penalty for withdrawing funds from a qualified plan retirement account prior to being 59 ½ years old. It’s your money (after all, you’re the one who made the deposits) so why are there so many rules and why are there penalties for you if you choose to access your funds? Answer: Rule #4. The government does not want you to be in a position of control because that takes away from their control so they create rules. These rules are based around them maintaining control so they limit your access. What’s shocking is that people continue to fund these accounts. Wall Street loves it because it creates a great deal of job security because they know you won’t access this money due to the rules and penalties so they have your money under management for many many years. The banks love it too because you’re not in a position to access capital for large capital purchases so they offer you a loan…and we know how much banks love that one.

These four rules are always at the center. When you begin to plan your trek up the mountain of retirement planning you can always find these four rules working against you…if you just pay attention.

Mt. Everest – descending is the most dangerous

Are there options? Are there ways to minimize the effect of these four and create a more effective plan up the mountain? Yes there are. Remember, for those who die climbing Mt. Everest, 70% of them die on the way down. The descent is the very most dangerous part of that journey. It’s no different financially. People are just climbing up without an understanding of how these rules affect them and more importantly, how they affect them on the way down. What do I mean by that statement? Well, if you have a large sum in your qualified retirement account, or that’s your plan at least, then please tell me the tax implications on that money during your retirement? You don’t know. No one does…it’s impossible because you’d have to literally know the future. You see, any financial professional can only plan one year at a time with those types of accounts because we don’t even know what taxes will be or what the distribution rules will be for next year. If you’re in this position then you can truly only plan one year at a time and that’s a very dangerous position to be in. The descent will most likely not work out in your favor. You must not only plan to effectively get up the mountain top but also to get back down to base camp alive (i.e. be financially independent through your life expectancy). With this knowledge your trek up the mountain may take a different path and while others are falling off you’re holding on just fine. That’s our expertise. That’s what we do for our clients.

There are solutions. There are answers to minimize the Four Rules’ overall negative effect on your plan; however, you have to be willing to learn. I don’t care what financial position you’re in, you must be willing to have a few discussions with a student-type mentality.

Kelly O’Connor – kelly.oconnor@mtnfinancial.com

303.578.9708

Website  –  YouTube  –  Facebook

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Why did the chicken cross the road?

February 28, 2013

In November of 2009, I wrote a blog post titled: Why “the experts” confuse the average investor (here is the link). This topic popped into my mind the other day as I was talking with my 10-year old daughter. She asked me the classic question: “Daddy, why did the chicken cross the road?” Of course I knew that a rip-roaring joke was about to be laid out on the table…at least that’s how I had to portray it with her. Sure enough, she had a great answer and I busted out laughing. This got me thinking about my previously mentioned blog post because the answers to the question posed by my daughter are endless and they simply depend on who’s answering the question.

I thought, what if we asked this simple question about the chicken to various people, maybe even historical people? Would their answers have been the same or would they be different? So, here we go, “Why did the chicken cross the road?”

Their answers*

Dr. Seuss: Did the chicken cross the road? Did he cross it with a toad? Yes! The chicken crossed the road, but why it crossed it, I’ve not been told!

Ernest Hemingway: To die. In the rain.

Buddha: If you ask this question, you deny your own chicken nature.

Martin Luther King, Jr.: I envision a world where all chickens will be free to cross roads without having their motives called into question.

Colonel Sanders: I missed one?

Attorney: Chickens are invited to cross the road to join a class action lawsuit against all non-chickens.

Bill Clinton: I did not cross the road with THAT chicken. What do you mean by chicken? Could you define ‘chicken’ please?

George Bush Sr.: Read my lips, no new chickens will cross the road.

Retired truck driver: To prove to the armadillo that it could be done.

Albert Einstein: Did the chicken really cross the road, or did the road move beneath the chicken?

This is all in fun of course but the theme here is very similar to the variety of instructions given to people about solidifying their financial future. Having a clear understanding and a concise plan can be almost impossible because financial professionals virtually always disagree with each other and they never provide the same answer. Most people have heard the following conversation over and over again whenever they speak with a new financial expert: “How much money do you have? Where is it? Oh my gosh, why did they put you there!? You need to come over here because we’ll do so much better.”

Climbing Mount Everest

So, who can you trust? Who really has your best interests at heart? This is often the hardest hurdle to get past. This reminds me of climbing expeditions up Mount Everest. What is the most important phase of the climb? This single phase is responsible for over 75% of all deaths that occur during the quest to summit Everest. It’s the descent. The plan DOWN is the MOST important part of the entire expedition.

Financially it’s no different. The “climb” to the summit can be viewed as the accumulation phase as you work towards your retirement. The descent is the distribution phase of your assets to ensure you have enough money to live on for as long as you’ve planned to live. What does traditional planning focus on the most: i) simply getting to the summit or ii) getting to the summit with a very specific plan on how to get down? ING put out a series of TV commercials (here’s one of them) asking you if you “know your number”. That “number” is the amount you need to retire or more specifically the number you need TO GET TO THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN! But ING, what is the plan once that number is reached? Our focus should be even more intent on that phase of life than any other.

105% increase in 10 years!

Truly, if you hired a guide for your climb up the mountain and you asked him for his plan to get you down the mountain, how would you feel if he said this: “I don’t know, but once we get there we’ll figure it out.” Remember, 75% of those who die, die on the way down. Look around, how are people doing? We have an aging population, a declining workforce, an inability to save, a national debt that’s beyond comprehension and a government whose only answer is to print more money. According to whitehouse.gov (Table S5 Proposed Budget by Category) if we wiped out the entire Federal Government and the entire Military (all discretionary spending for 2012) then we’d still be short by $8,000,000,000 due to the various entitlement programs (we did a video on this very topic). Let that sink in, the ENTIRE federal government and the ENTIRE military and we’d still be short. Now, if you do this exact calculation for 2013 then we’d have a surplus of $360 billion (again, only if we got rid of the federal government and the military – obviously never going to happen) but look at the “total receipts” (all taxes collected)…they’re predicted to go up by 17.5%! If you look at the total receipts predicted in just 10 years, 2022, it’s a 105% increase from 2012. Are you ready for that? What’s your plan to deal with this issue? How are going to get down the mountain? If you’re only being told that you’ll be in a lower tax bracket in the future then you better get a new climbing guide.

Reduce future taxable income

There’s an endless amount of Congressional Budget Office reports and Government Accountability Office reports informing you that your taxes are going up plus the dollar will continue to weaken (the hidden tax). How will all of this affect you once you decide to “come off the mountain top”? Please understand, there are strategies and solutions to help mitigate some of these issues but you must be prioritizing strategies that will reduce your taxable income in the future! You will most assuredly face fewer deductions, fewer benefits, higher taxes and a weak dollar; therefore, reducing your taxable income in the future will be the biggest and most important aspect of your plan to efficiently climb down the mountain and make it out alive. The only factor that determines success is the reaction of the government. Shouldn’t we be studying them and NOT the financial products? All other discussions are only focused on making it to the summit. Our clients come to know what it means to have a plan for distribution and how their plan will ensure that they will NEVER be poor. Our job isn’t to help you strike it rich. Our job is to secure that you not only summit the mountain but that you make it down safely regardless of the conditions or challenges you face.

So, I ask you, why did the chicken cross the road? My answer, because she knew she could make it.

Kelly O’Connor – kelly.oconnor@mtnfinancial.com

303.578.9708

Website  –  YouTube  –  Facebook

*some of these answers came from http://grandfather-economic-report.com/


Inflation: devastating or full of opportunity. Which do you want?

May 25, 2012

Banks lending again? What does that mean for you and your money? More than you may think.

Did you notice there are some banks that have begun to lift their tight lending requirements? For example, Key Bank here in Denver is now offering 100% financing again. So, what’s the big deal? Before we take a look at what this means, let’s ask a few questions:

  • Have there been any bad times before in the history of the world financially? Of course.
  • During those bad times, even the Great Depression, were there any people who made money? Of course.
  • Was it the people who planned and prepared or people who just let stuff happen to them that were most successful? Obviously those who planned.
  • So which one do you want to be and when do you want to get started?
  • If you could truly put yourself in a position to take advantage of the opportunities you have to earn your family’s financial independence even in bad times, then shouldn’t you be thinking the current economic situation is an opportunity and not a “bad thing”?

Inflation is going to do some real damage to our money if we’re not prepared. Stop and think about this, if you had $1,000,000 and you lost $200,000, you’re down to $800k and that money just stays the same. If we have 7% inflation that $800k is only going to buy $400k of retirement, or $400,000 of goods and services a decade from now.

  • What’s your strategy to make sure that you don’t get hurt by this inflation?
  • More importantly, are there any strategies available that would help you actually take advantage of that inflation to your benefit?

There are strategies that have been implemented for over a century.

Now, let’s get back to the banks…like what Key Bank is doing. The banking system received an unbelievable amount of [printed] money (inflation Step #1) that our government created when TARP was passed. We’ve discussed before but do you remember Step #2 that is required for inflation to take hold? Step #2, the printed money has to be circulated. You starting to put this together?

  • Did the banks circulate those monies initially? No they didn’t, at least not very much of it.
  • Even though they didn’t circulate a lot have we experienced some inflation because of those funds? Absolutely, all you have to do is go buy a gallon of milk today to see it first-hand.

Here’s the bigger problem, banks are beginning to circulate more of that money (i.e. Key Bank offering 100% financing again!). This will have a huge impact over the course of the next decade. Huge!

  • What happens to interest rates when inflation begins to roar? They go up. Remember the early 80’s after the inflationary pressures from the late 70’s?
Historical rates of great opportunity
If you don’t remember what interest rates were at that time then take a look at this graph. Opportunity? You better believe it but only if you were in a position to take advantage of it. What if all your money was in your house (equity)? Look at this graph. In 1982 would you have borrowed money at 16.08% in order to earn 15.12% for one year? Of course not.

There are always those who plan and those who do not. Over the next decade and beyond, you have the opportunity to take advantage of these opportunities but it requires one very important characteristic.

  • You MUST have access to capital, more specifically, guaranteed access to capital no matter the situation with the ability to collateralize those funds and earn a spread in a GUARANTEED and PREDICTABLE environment!
If inflation was raging right now and guaranteed rates, like CDs, were flying high, are you in a position to take advantage of it or are you currently positioned to be hurt by it? It’s a choice, not a matter of chance.
Since I’m on a roll, here’s some more questions for you
I love questions so here are a few more; however, these questions are designed for you to ask other advisors who want to invest your money. Those advisors MUST be able to provide an answer for each one these and we challenge you to ask them because, after all, it’s YOUR money and YOUR future.
  • What are you doing to do to make sure I don’t lose any money? What’s your strategy?
  • If I do lose, what’s your strategy to make back any money lost to get me back ahead of the game? What are your recommendations?
  • What impact are taxes going to have on all of this and could taxes prevent me from having a successful outcome?
  • Do you believe taxes will be higher in the future? If so, please answer the third bullet point again.
  • What strategy is there in place to keep taxes off my back going forward?
  • If you are recommending my money be put in a taxable position then please explain to me the specific reason why (especially if you believe taxes will be higher in the future) and the exit strategy to minimize those taxes in the future.
  • How can I take advantage of the pressures caused by inflation with your strategy?
  • What impact will inflation have on your strategy?
  • What is the impact of fees over time to the performance of your strategy? How can I get rid of or minimize those fees?

I hope it’s obvious by now but we have an answer, and a specific strategy, for each and every one of those questions.

You better be able to address each and every one of those. If not, then you’ll simply be one of many who didn’t plan…again, it’s not a matter of chance but instead a matter of choice.

We’d be happy to show you.

Kelly O’Connor – kelly.oconnor@mtnfinancial.com

303.578.9708

Website  –  YouTube  –  Facebook


Taxes (Defining Moment #2) Part 4

October 11, 2010

These two defining moments we have discussed so far – Your money will never be worth more than it is today and This may be the lowest tax bracket you will ever be in – are unique because they will have a direct impact on all the remaining conversations and even our videos (coming soon to YouTube – update: now on YouTube).

They certainly present a very clear challenge to our thought process. When combined together they confront head on some of the traditional thinking that has been branded into all of us.

If your money will never be worth more than it is today, due to inflation, and this may be the lowest tax bracket you will ever be in due to the demographics and government spending (my next set of blog posts – don’t miss these), then why is traditional thinking telling you to take as much of today’s money as you can and throw it as far as you can into the future, where it will have less buying power and be taxed the most?

That is such a strong question. I recommend you read it again.  Once you do, ask yourself, is that the thought-process or type of planning you want to pursue?

When you begin to apply these two Defining Moments to your everyday lives you may begin to process things a little differently. Like this: if you purchase a car which is a depreciating asset anyway, do you want to use as many of today’s dollars that have the most buying power and pay that car off as fast as you can?  Maybe not.

You may also think about the way you are approaching your retirement dollars. In qualified plans, such as IRA’s, 401K’s, one thing is very clear, the government controls the pen which gives them the ability…and the authorization…to change the rules at any point.

So you must then be able to answer this question:

who’s future are you financing, your’s or the government’s?

You must consider that whatever you have left after taxes, what will the buying power be of your money at that time? Understanding this may open your eyes to ideas other than what you’re hearing on TV or read in the financial magazines, and certainly today’s traditional thinking.

That’s what we do…we help you re-consider.  It’s Financial Caffeine.

Kelly O’Connor – kelly.oconnor@mtnfinancial.com

303.578.9708

Website  –  YouTube  –  Facebook


Velocity of Money Part 4

September 24, 2010

We just discussed how this first Defining Moment, that your money will never be worth more than it is today, motivates banks and why they live by it, but how does it impact your mortgage?

If you own a home and have a mortgage on it you are probably the proud recipient of a lot of junk mail. Much of this mail is from financial institutions who want to inform you that making additional payments on your mortgage is a good thing. For whom it is a good thing is not clear to most but for those who understand this Defining Moment it’s very clear.

We touched on this a little bit before but let’s take it a little deeper.  Let’s start with this question: would you like to make more house payments now with dollars that will never be worth more than they are today? Or, make more payments later when the buying power of that money is far less?

Let’s look at some math.  If your mortgage payment is $1,000 per month, do you want to make more payments now when your money has the buying power of $1,000 or make more payments later when the buying power of that money is $412 thirty years from now? (Which is the buying power of $1,000 with a 3% inflation rate for 30 years).

What you need to understand is that the value of your home is going to go up or down no matter what your monthly payment is as well as no matter what your mortgage balance is at the time.

To prove that point, if there are two identical homes side by side and one is paid for but the other is mortgaged, at any point, the houses are worth the same.  Neither the payment nor the mortgage have any effect on the value of the property.

But by making additional payments or paying cash up front for the house, you have used the most expensive buying power dollars you could to do this. At the same time by using today’s money to make additional payments you have made the banks and mortgage companies very happy. Remember they are in a win-win situation. So what do you do?

We’d highly recommend you read our Mortgage blogs when they’re posted…so that means you’d have to subscribe. There is one thing I know that WE can do for you right now.

We can prove, again not with concept or fancy theory but good ‘ol 8th grade math, that paying extra and sending more of your most value dollars to the bank ahead of schedule actually hurts you financially.

Big paradigm shift, we get it.  Call us crazy but we also can prove that a 30 year mortgage can actually pay off FASTER than a 15 year mortgage using the exact same budget for both…even with a higher interest rate on the 30 year. Read that again. This can be proven with math and no investments are needed to accomplish this fact.  It’s true and can be backed up with simple math.

So, we’ll do our part for free by showing you. You just have to challenge us and be willing to learn something new.

Kelly O’Connor – kelly.oconnor@mtnfinancial.com

303.578.9708

Website  –  YouTube  –  Facebook


Velocity of Money Part 3

September 18, 2010

We hear every day, “I thought that I should pay extra principle to lower my interest expense?”

First, the banks are in a win-win situation no matter what you do. You see, if you don’t make additional payments because you understand that you are giving the bank control of more money, then they will just collect more interest over time.

If you do make additional payments the bank doesn’t just sit on it. Remember, they’ve mastered Defining Moment #1 and the velocity of money.  That additional money from you is used and lent back out to start the process all over again.

What would you rather do, follow traditional planning and make all attempts to have your $10 earn $1 more?  Keep in mind, you have to deal with all the other flexible factors that we discuss in our Why Traditional Planning Fails To Reach Its Goals (future posts).  Or, function more like a bank and have your $10 do the work of $50?

Yeah, I think the bank model works quite well. So what do we do? Well, here’s an important question: do you believe banks have your best interests at heart?  Most people say no. If you said “no”, then have you ever asked yourself why banks offer a lower rate on a 15 year mortgage than a 30 year?  If they don’t have your best interest at heart and they are giving you an incentive to go with a particular product, then maybe we should do a little math.

They understand perfectly AND IMPLEMENT the Defining Moment that money will never be worth more than it is today? They want as much of your money as soon as possible (ie a 15 year mortgage) in order to keep it moving, working, and earning for them.

They’ll even entice us by offering gifts for our deposits and they promote like crazy just how convenient it is to deposit our money.  You’ve seen the recent TVcommercials about the new technology for ATM deposits.  Isn’t it ironic that they also make us rely on credit scores which are a directly determined by just how quickly we pay them back?

If we apply this defining moment to our everyday lives the lesson becomes more and more apparent.   By taking a look at the country’s savings rate, there’s no doubt that our ability to hang on to today’s money, the money that has the most buying power, is dwindling.

In reality more of our dollars are going to someone else in the form of debt payments, taxes, and other financial transfers more than it’s working for us. The ability for Americans to save “today’s” dollars has all but diminished.

The traditional approach must change, and the sooner the better. What is really needed is more financial literacy.  It is so important to understand that “your money will never be worth more than it is today.” And equally important, how it may impact your thought process in your everyday life.

If you do, then maybe you’ll question the various strategies recommended to give your money as soon as possible to other entities.  Even if it means incurring some more interest expense.

Kelly O’Connor – kelly.oconnor@mtnfinancial.com

303.578.9708

Website  –  YouTube  –  Facebook


The Velocity of Money #2

September 13, 2010

Do you remember the scene in the movie “Miracle” about the 1980 Olympic Hockey Team when coach Herb Brooks told the young men that today was NOT going to be the day that the Russian team would win?  It was a defining moment for that team.  Well, we talk about financial Defining Moments.

I don’t care how successful you are, if you do not understand how these financial Defining Moments effect you as you accumulate, preserve, and certainly as you distribute your wealth…well, then today they’ll probably beat you.

Defining Moment #1 is, “your money will never be worth more than it is today.” That sounds really simple and if you think about it, you’ll agree that EVERY financial institution masters this one lesson. Because of this, they also understand the phrase “the velocity of money.”

Money that doesn’t move or have velocity is like money that is stuffed in a mattress; it doesn’t create wealth or profits. To give you an example, the average bank in the United States spends a dollar about five and a half times. Have you ever thought how they do that?

Wouldn’t you love to spend YOUR dollar 5 ½ times?  Well, it’s simple.  First they TOTALLY embrace this Defining Moment.  You see, they take money, and it is not even their money, that is deposited in their bank and lend it to other people.

These people who borrowed the money make payments back to the bank and pay interest. The bank then takes those monthly payments and lends that money out again, over and over. This process continues repetitively about five times on each dollar they touch.

The collection of interest alone is very profitable for the bank. But they understand one rule that creates more profit for them than just collecting interest. They understand that MONEY WILL NEVER BE WORTH MORE THAN IT IS TODAY.

Due to inflation the buying power of a dollar decreases over time. The buying power of $1,000 today with a 3% inflation factor built in will have the buying power of only $412 in 30 years. The banks and lending institutions understand this clearly and they may even encourage you to make additional monthly payments on the money they lent you.

Wait a minute Kelly, I thought that I should pay extra to lower my interest expense?

Well, if you understand and, more importantly, apply Defining Moment #1, then maybe you should ask some questions.

More Financial Caffeine coming your way.

Kelly O’Connor – kelly.oconnor@mtnfinancial.com

303.578.9708

Website  –  YouTube  –  Facebook